You're reading the documentation for a version of ROS 2 that has reached its EOL (end-of-life), and is no longer officially supported. If you want up-to-date information, please have a look at Iron.
Debian packages for ROS 2 Galactic Geochelone are currently available for Ubuntu Focal. The target platforms are defined in REP 2000
Make sure you have a locale which supports
If you are in a minimal environment (such as a docker container), the locale may be something minimal like
We test with the following settings. However, it should be fine if you’re using a different UTF-8 supported locale.
locale # check for UTF-8
sudo apt update && sudo apt install locales
sudo locale-gen en_US en_US.UTF-8
sudo update-locale LC_ALL=en_US.UTF-8 LANG=en_US.UTF-8
locale # verify settings
You will need to add the ROS 2 apt repository to your system.
First ensure that the Ubuntu Universe repository is enabled.
sudo apt install software-properties-common
sudo add-apt-repository universe
Now add the ROS 2 GPG key with apt.
sudo apt update && sudo apt install curl
sudo curl -sSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/ros/rosdistro/master/ros.key -o /usr/share/keyrings/ros-archive-keyring.gpg
Then add the repository to your sources list.
echo "deb [arch=$(dpkg --print-architecture) signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/ros-archive-keyring.gpg] http://packages.ros.org/ros2/ubuntu $(. /etc/os-release && echo $UBUNTU_CODENAME) main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ros2.list > /dev/null
Update your apt repository caches after setting up the repositories.
sudo apt update
ROS 2 packages are built on frequently updated Ubuntu systems. It is always recommended that you ensure your system is up to date before installing new packages.
sudo apt upgrade
Desktop Install (Recommended): ROS, RViz, demos, tutorials.
sudo apt install ros-galactic-desktop
ROS-Base Install (Bare Bones): Communication libraries, message packages, command line tools. No GUI tools.
sudo apt install ros-galactic-ros-base
Development tools: Compilers and other tools to build ROS packages
sudo apt install ros-dev-tools
Set up your environment by sourcing the following file.
# Replace ".bash" with your shell if you're not using bash
# Possible values are: setup.bash, setup.sh, setup.zsh
If you installed
ros-galactic-desktop above you can try some examples.
In one terminal, source the setup file and then run a C++
ros2 run demo_nodes_cpp talker
In another terminal source the setup file and then run a Python
ros2 run demo_nodes_py listener
You should see the
talker saying that it’s
Publishing messages and the
I heard those messages.
This verifies both the C++ and Python APIs are working properly.
Continue with the tutorials and demos to configure your environment, create your own workspace and packages, and learn ROS 2 core concepts.
The ROS 1 bridge can connect topics from ROS 1 to ROS 2 and vice-versa. See the dedicated documentation on how to build and use the ROS 1 bridge.
The default middleware that ROS 2 uses is
Cyclone DDS, but the middleware (RMW) can be replaced at runtime.
See the guide on how to work with multiple RMWs.
Troubleshooting techniques can be found here.
If you need to uninstall ROS 2 or switch to a source-based install once you have already installed from binaries, run the following command:
sudo apt remove ~nros-galactic-* && sudo apt autoremove
You may also want to remove the repostiory:
sudo rm /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ros2.list
sudo apt update
sudo apt autoremove
# Consider upgrading for packages previously shadowed.
sudo apt upgrade